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Building into a carbon emission "black hole" accounts for half of society's emissions

Building into a carbon emission "black hole" accounts for half of society's emissions

(Summary description)

Building into a carbon emission "black hole" accounts for half of society's emissions

(Summary description)

Information
The sixth series of reports on "What's stopping the city's low-carbon footsteps":
  [EP Environmental Network Comprehensive Report] For most ordinary people in China, carbon emissions from buildings are far from direct problems with cars and factories, and many people don't even understand what emissions are caused by a fixed house. In fact, building carbon emissions account for almost 50% of the total social emissions, which is much higher than the transportation and industrial sectors.

 
【status quo】
Building carbon emissions are not optimistic
According to statistics, only 1% of my country’s existing buildings of nearly 40 billion square meters are energy-saving buildings (as of 2009, the total construction area of ​​energy-saving buildings in the country is 4.08 billion square meters). The rest is measured by the building envelope or heating and air conditioning system. , Are all high-energy-consuming buildings. Building energy consumption has accounted for 30%-40% of the total energy consumption of the society.
Statistics show that every 1 square meter of house built in China releases about 0.8 tons of carbon. Due to the large proportion of high-energy-consuming buildings, my country consumes 18 million tons of standard coal each year in heating areas in the north alone, resulting in a direct economic loss of 7 billion yuan and an additional emission of 520,000 tons of carbon dioxide. If this situation is allowed to continue to develop, it is estimated that by 2020, the country's high-energy-consuming building area will reach 70 billion square meters.
 
【reason】
Building technology itself is not conducive to energy saving and emission reduction
There are very old habits in the use of building materials and building structures in China. These decades or even hundreds of years of habits are precisely one of the main reasons for high energy consumption and high emissions. my country’s building envelopes generally have poor thermal insulation performance. Two-thirds of the heating energy is wasted. The energy consumed per unit area for heating is equivalent to two to three times that of developed countries with similar latitudes. In recent years, the situation of building materials replacement has not changed much, and the use of new materials and technologies still lags far behind the United States, Japan and other countries.
Short building life is a waste of energy
Liu Zhifeng, President of the China Real Estate Association, pointed out that the primary problem facing my country's current building energy conservation is that the service life of buildings is much shorter than the actual life, which greatly reduces the results of energy conservation and emission reduction. It is understood that the average lifespan of buildings in Europe is more than 80 years, and many of them are used for more than a hundred years. The life cycle of buildings in Japan is estimated to be 38 years, while the service life of houses in my country is often no more than 20 to 30 years. The shorter the life of the house, the more it will be demolished, and the more energy such as steel and cement will eventually be consumed, the greater the urban greenhouse effect will be.
Expansive consumption concept is not conducive to building energy saving
Living in a big house has always been the goal pursued by the Chinese. As long as economic conditions permit, the Chinese are trying their best to choose a larger living space, but the inappropriate pursuit of "luxury" is also a waste of resources.
The China Academy of Building Technology and the Housing Industry Promotion Center of the Ministry of Construction have compared domestic and foreign housing. The result is that the national strength and per capita income of the three developed countries of Japan, Sweden, and Germany are 10 or even dozens of times ours. Types are within 85 to 100 square meters. In China, except for some big cities because of the high housing prices, people are more inclined to small apartments. Chinese people are generally willing to buy more than 100 square meters of living space.
When the United Nations Development Program summarized the gains and losses of human consumption in the 20th century in the 1998 Human Development Report, it warned that to get rid of and overcome the conspicuous, competitive, and ostentatious consumption concepts, energy-saving must change the size of improper households. .
Difficulties in energy-saving renovation of old houses
If it is still easy for new buildings to move closer to energy-efficient buildings in terms of design and construction, it is equally important how the larger proportion of old houses can be transformed into more energy-efficient houses. This is also difficult in China. It is not easy to implement whether it is the renovation of the entire building or the renovation of each household. In 2010, a century-old "Five Fang Villa" in Shanghai once asked "France Naço Design" to make energy-saving renovations. Facts have proved that under the existing building structure of the old house, energy saving and consumption reduction can still be achieved through interior design. OK. But in China, too few efforts have been made to renovate old houses. Not to mention whether the overall renovation of the building is well done, even the small renovations of each household are not easy. In 2011, the environmental protection organization Friends of Nature conducted a low-carbon home renovation activity in Beijing. 21 families have achieved energy-saving requirements by updating home appliances, using solar energy technology, and adding heat insulation facilities. However, from the perspective of implementation, it is not only necessary to build up work and materials and money, but also at least one family member must be dedicated to do it. The time and energy spent is not something that all families can do, unless the family has the energy-saving transformation. Special enthusiasm, otherwise it would be difficult to popularize this transformation. 【future】
How to improve and implement energy-saving building policies is more important
In fact, it cannot be said that China has made no achievements in building energy efficiency. In recent years, various measures and policies related to building energy efficiency have been continuously introduced.
In the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan for Energy Development" proposed by my country in 2007, the goal of reducing energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20% by 2010 has been clearly stated. Since 2008, various localities have also introduced policies one after another.
In 2011, the "Notice of the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development on Further Promoting Energy Conservation in Public Buildings" jointly issued by several agencies required that the state will initiate a number of key cities for the energy-saving transformation of public buildings. By 2015, the energy consumption per unit area of ​​public buildings in key cities will be reduced by more than 20%. Among them, the energy consumption per unit building area of ​​large public buildings will drop by more than 30%.
Various policies and measures have also achieved certain positive results. Taking statistics from the media as an example, in 2009, my country’s newly increased energy-saving building area was 960 million square meters, which could form an energy-saving capacity of 9 million tons of standard coal. The application area of ​​energy-saving technologies such as ground source heat pump technology has increased from 30 million square meters in 2005 to 120 million square meters in 2010, and a number of green energy technologies such as LED lighting, solar collectors, and photovoltaic power generation have also been well developed. .
However, these effects are far from reaching expectations. It is more important to improve and implement policies in the future. For example, with regard to the capital expenditures for energy-saving renovation, the central government funds are spent in the form of "rewards for subsidies", which are ex post rewards and are difficult to use for project start-ups. Relying on local government funds alone cannot meet the needs of renovation, because the remaining funds have to be made up by the owners, which affects the owners' enthusiasm for house renovation to a certain extent.
Secondly, in the implementation of energy-saving renovation in residential buildings, the opinions of the owners need to be solicited, and the owners cannot proceed without approval. To get the owner's 100% approval, this job itself is not easy to do. At present, the Beijing Municipal Government has implemented the implementation method of "over two-thirds of the owners' consent for building energy-saving renovation", which is expected to better solve this problem. (EP Environmental Protection Network: Si Jie Deng Yanan)

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